Sarguja University B.A (Part-III) ENGLIGH Paper – II

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Write a precis of the following passage | Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end | Impact of COVID-19 on Indian economy | All narrow limited fighting ideas must be given up. The religious ideals of the future must embrace all that exists in the world and is good and great.

Write a precis of the following passage:

“All narrow, limited, fighting ideas must be given up. The religious ideals of the future must embrace all that exists in the world and is good and great. and at the same time, have infinite scope for future development.

All that was good in the past must be preserved, and the doors must be kept open for future additions to the already existing store. Religion must also be inclusive and not look down with contempt upon one another, because their particular ideals of God are different. In my life, I have seen a great many spiritual men, a great many sensible persons, who did not believe in God at all, that is to say, not in our sense of the word. Perhaps they understood God better than we can ever do. The personal idea of God or the impersonal, the infinite, moral law or the ideal of man ….. these all have come under the definition of religion”.

Ans. Modern sceptics can believe religion if it is reasonable and not only based on traditional dogmas and rituals. The religion cannot remain confined to the premises of the Church and Temples, but its tenets should prove their worth at the alter of science. It is necessary to cooperate and co-ordinate between science and religion to make religion both rationalistic and reasonable.

Suitable Title – Our Religion🙏🙏

Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end :

By and large, women’s problems do not have a compelling character because women are essentially a category and not a group which can easily be mobilized, few feminists may wage a war against males, but such an attitude does not take us far. In the Indian context it would be unrealistic to say that men as actors in the social system are wholly responsible for the social evils that affect women. In point of fact women are as much responsible for creating obstacles to change. Enlargement of women’s conciousness and investment of social purpose in their lives appear to be prerequisites to development. In the meantime all forms of inequalities and exploitation have to be exposed and the women’s point of view injected into critical areas of planning and development.

Questions: Answer

1- women’s problems do not have a compelling character because women are essentially a category and not a group which can easily be mobilized.

2-few feminists may wage a war against males, but such an attitude does not take us far.

3-that men as actors in the social system are wholly responsible for the social evils that affect women.

4-Enlargement of women’s conciousness and investment of social purpose in their lives appear to be prerequisites to development.

5-the women’s point of view injected into critical areas of planning and development.

Essay

Impact of COVID-19 on Indian economy

The impact of coronavirus pandemic on India has been largely disruptive in terms of economic activity as well as a loss of human lives. Almost all the sectors have been adversely affected as domestic demand and exports sharply plummeted with some notable exceptions where high growth was observed. An attempt is made to analyze the impact and possible solutions for some key sectors.


FOOD & Agriculture


Since agriculture is the backbone of the country and a part of the government announced essential category, the impact is likely to be low on both primary agricultural production and usage of agro-inputs. Several state governments have already allowed free movement of fruits, vegetables, milk etc. Online food grocery platforms are heavily impacted due to unclear restrictions on movements and stoppage of logistics vehicles. RBI and Finance Minister announced measures will help the industry and the employees in the short term. Insulating the rural food production areas in the coming weeks will hold a great answer to the macro impact of COVID-19 on Indian food sector as well as larger economy.


AVIATION & TOURISM


The contribution of the Aviation Sector and Tourism to our GDP stands at about 2.4% and 9.2% respectively. The Tourism sector served approximately 43 million people in FY 18-19. Aviation and Tourism were the first industries that were hit significantly by the pandemic. The common consensus seems to be that COVID will hit these industries harder than 9/11 and the Financial Crisis of 2008. These two industries have been dealing with severe cash flow issues since the start of the pandemic and are staring at a potential 38 million lay-offs, which translates to 70 per cent of the total workforce. The impact is going to fall on both, White and Blue collar jobs. According to IATO estimates, these industries may incur losses of about 85 billion Rupees due to travel restrictions. The Pandemic has also brought about a wave of innovation in the fields of contactless boarding and travel technologies.


TELECOM


There has been a significant amount of changes in the telecom sector of India even before the COVID 19 due to brief price wars between the service providers. Most essential services and sectors have continued to run during the pandemic thanks to the implementation of the ‘work from home’ due to restrictions. With over 1 billion connections as of 2019, the telecom sector contributes about 6.5 per cent of GDP and employs almost 4 million people. Increased broadband usage had a direct impact and resulted in pressure on the network. Demand has been increased by about 10%. However, the Telco’s are bracing for a sharp drop in adding new subscribers. As a policy recommendation, the government can aid the sector by relaxing the regulatory compliances and provide moratorium for spectrum dues, which can be used for network expansions by the companies.


PHARMACEUTICALS


The pharmaceutical industry has been on the rise since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, especially in India, the largest producer of generic drugs globally. With a market size of $55 billion during the beginning of 2020, it has been surging in India, exporting Hydroxychloroquine to the world, esp. to the US, UK, Canada, and the Middle-East.
There has been a recent rise in the prices of raw materials imported from China due to the pandemic. Generic drugs are the most impacted due to heavy reliance on imports, disrupted supply-chain, and labour unavailability in the industry, caused by social distancing. Simultaneously, the pharmaceutical industry is struggling because of the government-imposed bans on the export of critical drugs, equipment, and PPE kits to ensure sufficient quantities for the country. The increasing demand for these drugs, coupled with hindered accessibility is making things harder. Easing the financial stress on the pharmaceutical companies, tax-relaxations, and addressing the labour force shortage could be the differentiating factors in such a desperate time.


OIL & GAS


The Indian Oil & Gas industry is quite significant in the global context – it is the third-largest energy consumer only behind USA and Chine and contributes to 5.2% of the global oil demand. The complete lockdown across the country slowed down the demand of transport fuels (accounting for 2/3rd demand in oil & gas sector) as auto & industrial manufacturing declined and goods & passenger movement (both bulk & personal) fell. Though the crude prices dipped in this period, the government increased the excise and special excise duty to make up for the revenue loss, additionally, road cess was raised too. As a policy recommendation, the government may think of passing on the benefits of decreased crude prices to end consumers at retail outlets to stimulate demand.


BEYOND COVID-19: THE NEW NORMAL


In view of the scale of disruption caused by the pandemic, it is evident that the current downturn is fundamentally different from recessions. The sudden shrinkage in demand & increased unemployment is going to alter the business landscape. Adopting new principles like ‘shift towards localization, cash conservation, supply chain resilience and innovation’ will help businesses in treading a new path in this uncertain environment.

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